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- Southern Sotho
- South Ndebele
- Western Cape
- Province of North West
- Province of Northern Cape
- Eastern Cape
- Province of KwaZulu-Natal
- Free State
Wiki Voyage Travel Information
South Africa is located at the southern tip of Africa . It is bordered by Namibia , Botswana , Zimbabwe , Mozambique , Swaziland and Lesotho (which is completely surrounded by South Africa). It is a large country with widely varying landscapes and has 11 official languages, as well as an equally diverse population. South Africa is renowned for its wines and is one of the world's largest producers of gold. South Africa has the strongest economy in Africa, and is an influential player in African politics. In 2010, South Africa hosted the first Association Football World Cup to be held on the African continent. South Africa was also host of the 1995 Rugby Union world cup, the only edition of that tournament to be held in Africa.
South Africa is divided into 9 provinces, they are:
- Prince Edward Islands - two small islands in the sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean. Access is restricted to research and conservation management.
- Pretoria - The administrative capital of the country
- Cape Town - The legislative capital and seat of Parliament. A world-class city named for its proximity to the Cape of Good Hope. Also within a stone's throw of South Africa's winelands . One of the most beautiful cities in the world, nestled between the sea and Table Mountain, it is a popular summer destination by both domestic tourists and those from abroad.
- Bloemfontein - Location of the Supreme Court of Appeal, the highest court in non-constitutional matters. The Constitutional Court in Johannesburg became the highest court in constitutional matters in 1994.
- Durban - Largest city in KwaZulu-Natal , third largest in South Africa and popular coastal holiday destination for South Africans.
- Johannesburg - The economic heart of Africa and the most common entry point into Southern Africa .
- Polokwane - Capital of Limpopo (formally known as Pietersburg) and a good jump off point for visits to the northern parts of the Kruger National Park and Zimbabwe .
- Port Elizabeth - Coastal city in the Eastern Cape with Addo Elephant National Park located close by.
- Kimberley -- Capital of the Northern Cape Province. Famous for its diamonds and "Big Hole".
- Upington - Located in the arid Northern Cape province, this city is a good base when exploring the Kalahari desert and the many national parks located in the Northern Cape .
South Africa is a paradise for anyone interested in natural history. A wide range of species (some potentially dangerous and endangered) may be encountered in parks, farms, private reserves and even on the roads.
- The Kruger National Park is exceptionally well managed and a favorite tourist destination.
- Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in the heart of the Kalahari desert with wide open spaces and hordes of games including the majestic 'Gemsbok'. This is the first park in Africa to cross political borders.
- There are also a large number of smaller parks, like the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park , Addo Elephant National Park , Marakele National Park , Pilanesberg National Park or the iSimangaliso Wetland Park .
See African Flora and Fauna and South African National Parks for additional information. There are hiking trails available in almost all the parks and around geographical places of interest, Hiking in South Africa contains information on those.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
- The Cradle of Humankind near Johannesburg is a must see for anyone interested in where it all started. A large collection of caves rich in hominid and advanced ape fossils.
- Robben Island just off the coast from Cape Town , where Nelson Mandela was imprisoned for many years.
- The Cape Floral Region in the Western Cape
- iSimangaliso Wetland Park
- Mapungubwe Kingdom in the North-West
- Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape in the Northern Cape
- Ukhahlamba Drakensberg Park for its landscape, biodiversity and rock art.
- Vredefort Dome, remnants of the largest and oldest meteorite impact crater.
If you want to travel in southern Africa then South Africa is a good place to start. While you can fly into any country in southern Africa, most flights will route through South Africa anyway. South Africa is also a good place to get used to travelling in the region (though some would argue that Namibia is better for that). Of course South Africa is not only a jumping off point, it is itself a superb destination rich in culture, fauna, flora and history.
Outsiders' views of South Africa are coloured by the same stereotypes as the rest of Africa. Contrary to popular belief, South Africa is not devastatingly poor with an unstable government. Although the rural part of South Africa remains among the poorest and the least developed parts of the world and poverty in the townships can be appalling, progress is being made. The process of recovering from apartheid, which lasted almost 46 years, is quite slow. In fact, South Africa's United Nations Human Development Index which was slowly improving in the final years of apartheid, has declined dramatically since 1996, largely due to the AIDS pandemic, and poverty levels appear to be on the increase. South Africa boasts a well-developed infrastructure and has all the modern amenities and technologies, much of it developed during the years of white minority rule. The government is stable, although corruption is common. The government and the primary political parties generally have a high level of respect for democratic institutions and human rights.
Despite the problems the country faces, South Africa remains the strongest economy in Africa, and is the only African country to be a member of the elite G-20 group of major economies.
South Africa is located at the southernmost tip of Africa, with a long coastline that stretches more than 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and along two oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian).
The tip of Africa has been home to the Khoisan (collective name for Hottentot (Koi) and Bushmen (San)) people for thousands of years. Their rock art can still be found in many places throughout South Africa. It is estimated that Bantu tribes may have started to slowly expand into the northernmost areas of what is today Southern Africa at around 2,500 years ago and by around 500 AD the different cultural groups as we know them today had been established in the lush areas to the north and east of the what is today known as Eastern South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The desert and semi-desert areas of the Western and Northern Cape provinces, as well as the western parts of the Eastern Cape province remained unsettled by the Bantu as the arid climate, limited seasonal rainfall, sparse vegetation and scarcity of natural sources of water could not sustain large migrations of people and herds of cattle, cattle being the primary livestock reared by the Bantu and fulfilling numerous cultural and economic functions within the tribal society (cattle served as a rudimentary currency and basic unit of exchange with a mutually agreeable value between bartering parties, thus fulfilling the function of money). The "Khoisan" existed in these areas as nomadic hunters, unable to permanently settle as the movement of desert game in search of dwindling water supplies during winter months determined their own migration. Not until the "Boers" (see next paragraph) moved into these areas and established boreholes and containment ponds could any permanent settlements be established in these areas. Today, with more reliable sources of water and modern methods of water conservancy the agricultural activity remains limited mainly to sheep and ostrich ranching as these animals are better suited to the sparse feed and limited water.
The first permanent European settlement was built at Cape Town after the Dutch East India Company reached the Cape of Good Hope in April 1652. In the late 1700s, the Boers (the settling farmers) slowly started expanding first westward along the coastline and later upwards into the interior. By 1795, Britain first took control of the Cape, as a consequence of the Napoleonic wars on the Dutch, and in 1820, a large group of British settlers arrived in the region. In 1835, large numbers of Boers started out on the Groot Trek (the great migration) into the interior after becoming dissatisfied with the British rule. In the interior, they established their own internationally recognized republics. Meanwhile, the British would defeat the Zulu Kingdom in the Anglo-Zulu War 1879, thus establishing colonial rule over the Zulu people.
Two wars for control over the region were fought between the Boers and the British in 1880 and 1899. The second war occurred after British settlers flooded into the area surrounding Johannesburg known as the "Witwatersrand" (white water escarpment) in response to the discovery of gold in 1886. The Second Boer War (Afrikaans: Die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog or 'Second War of Independence') was particularly unpleasant, as the British administration contained the Boer civilian population in concentration camps resulting in one of the earliest recorded genocides. Boer farms, livestock, crops and homesteads were also largely destroyed.
After peace was restored by the 1902 Treaty of Vereeniging, the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, consolidating the various Boer republics and British colonies into a unified state as a member of the British Commonwealth. In 1961, the Republic of South Africa was formed and SA exited the Commonwealth. Non-Europeans were largely excluded from these political changes as they had received sovereign lands in which to live under self-rule, in accordance with their own tribal legal system and hierarchical form of government.
In 1948, the National Party came to power. The NP introduced numerous apartheid laws which were intended, initially, to give a national/tribal, independent and sovereign "homeland" to each of the various tribes within South Africa, who were frequently engaged in raids and border wars against each other. This was a move that was initially welcomed by the majority of the different tribal kings and chieftains, as most of the tribes sought self-governance. Since then, South Africa became practically synonymous with fascism, racism, and many other pejorative descriptions. The African National Congress (ANC) was banned and forced into exile for conducting and plotting terrorist activities against civilians, other political parties that were considered 'dangerous' and 'subversive' were also banned by the South African parliament during this time as South Africa became more involved in a war against communist insurrection on the former German colony of 'South West Africa's' border with Angola. This war was conducted in accordance with the 'League of Nations' (today the 'United Nations') mandate that followed the Second World War, bestowing upon South Africa the protectorate of the confiscated former German colony 'South West Africa' (today The Republic of Namibia).
The Republic, despite experiencing rapid infrastructure development and strong economic growth until the late 1980s, also experienced frequent domestic uprisings in response to the apartheid laws. During this time the international community also installed weapons and trade embargoes against South Africa, as well as banning South Africa from the Olympic Games and most other international sporting competitions.
In the late 1980s, many white moderates began to recognize that change was inevitable, as international sanctions and internal strife were beginning to take a severe toll on South Africa. Thus, moderates within the security service and the National Party itself began quietly reaching out to ANC leaders to negotiate how to dismantle apartheid, which started with the freeing of political prisoners in 1990.
Political violence worsened badly during the early 1990s as extremists of all kinds attempted to derail ANC-NP peace talks in favor of their own visions of the future of South Africa. In 1992, 73% of the voting white population voted in a referendum to have the apartheid system abolished. This was quickly followed by a new constitution in 1993 and then the nation's first truly democratic election in April 1994, in which all South African adult citizens were allowed to vote regardless of their ethnic and cultural background. Former political prisoner Nelson Mandela was elected the country's first democratically elected president. The ANC won a 63% majority and proceeded to form a Government of National Unity with the NP.
Many region, city, street and building names in South Africa have been changed after the end of apartheid and some of them are still being changed today. These changes can sometimes lead to confusion as many of the new names are not yet well known. This travel guide will use the official new names, but also mention the previous names where possible.
The climate in South Africa ranges from desert and semi-desert in the north west of the country to sub-tropical on the eastern coastline. The rainy season for most of the country is in the summer, except in the Western Cape where the rains come in the winter. Rainfall in the Eastern Cape is distributed evenly throughout the year. Winter temperatures hover around zero, summers can be very hot, in excess of 35°C (95°F) in some places.
The South African Weather Service provides up to date weather information, forecasts and radar imaging.
The public holidays in South Africa are:
- New Year's Day (1 January)
- Human Rights Day (21 March)
- Easter weekend A 4-day long weekend in March or April consisting of "Good Friday", "Holy Saturday", "Easter Sunday" and "Easter Monday", the dates are set according to the Western Christian tradition.
- Freedom Day (27 April)
- Workers Day (1 May)
- Youth Day (16 June)
- Woman's Day (9 August)
- Heritage Day (24 September)
- Day of Reconciliation (16 December) - see Bloodriver .
- Christmas Day (25 December)
- Day of Goodwill (26 December)
If a public holiday falls on a Sunday, then the Monday following will be a holiday
School holidays occur early December to the middle of January, early in April, middle June to the middle of July and in late September. Most South Africans go on leave during these times and accommodation will be harder to find.
South African Tourism operates a number of offices in other countries. You might wish to contact the office in your country for any additional information or assistance
The following nationalities do not need a visa for a stay of 90 days or less: Andorra , Argentina , Australia , Austria , Belgium , Botswana , Brazil , Canada , Chile , Czech Republic , Denmark , Ecuador , Finland , France , Germany , Greece , Iceland , Ireland , Israel , Italy , Jamaica , Japan , Liechtenstein , Luxembourg , Malta , Monaco , the Netherlands , New Zealand , Norway , Paraguay , Portugal , Russia , Saint Vincent and the Grenadines , San Marino , Singapore , Spain , Sweden , Switzerland , Tanzania (90 days per 1 year), United Kingdom , United States , Uruguay , Venezuela , Zimbabwe , and citizens of British Overseas Territories.
The following nationalities do not need a visa for a stay of 30 days or less: Antigua and Barbuda , Barbados , Belize , Benin , Bolivia , Cape Verde , Costa Rica , Cyprus , Gabon , Guyana , Hong Kong (BNO passports or SAR passports), Hungary , Jordan , Lesotho , Macau , Malaysia , Malawi , Maldives , Mauritius , Mozambique , Namibia , Peru , Poland , Seychelles , Slovakia , South Korea , Swaziland , Thailand , Turkey , and Zambia .
Do not show up without a visa if you are required to have one, as visas will not be issued at points of entry. If needed, you can extend your visa in South Africa. With an extension the total amount of time you are allowed to stay is 6 months. Additional information as well as Visa application forms can be found at the Department of Home Affairs , ph +27 012 810 8911.
The Department of Home Affairs is notoriously inefficient, so make sure to apply for visas and visa extensions as early as possible. A way to 'extend' your visa without going through the disaster that is the Department of Home Affairs, is by leaving and re-entering South Africa. Contrary to popular belief, a 30-day visa cannot be 'reset' when leaving and re-entering South Africa from the bordering countries of Lesotho, Swaziland and possibly Namibia and Botswana (though Mozambique is fine). You will NOT get a new visa. For example, when you have a 30-day visa, and exit South Africa and enter Lesotho or Swaziland after 5 days of validity and re-enter South Africa after 5 days, you are only allowed to stay another 20 days in South Africa and not 30 days. However if you fly back to Europe or go to Mozambique, and then re-enter South Africa, you will be issued a new 30 day visa.
Make sure you have 2 blank pages back to back in your passport and that it is valid for at least 30 days after your intended date of departure, or you will be sent back! Make sure you have a return ticket available or they will send you back. If you need to pick up a ticket at the airport have the flight number and details handy and speak with the customs guy, they should check your story out and let you in (be firm). Be wary of arriving with a damaged passport as new security measures might trip up your entry.
South Africa is a major hub for air travel in the Southern African region. The country's flag carrier, South Africa Airways (SAA), has an extensive global and pan-African network of connections, some of which are operated by its short-haul subsidiaries SA Airlink and SA Express.
South Africa has 10 international airports. The primary intercontinental hub is the O.R. Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg ; the secondary one is Cape Town International . They serve as gateways for tourists and foreign visitors, and hubs for travel within South Africa and Southern Africa in general.
Direct flights arrive from major European centres, including: Amsterdam , Athens , Madrid , London , Paris , Istanbul , Frankfurt , Munich , Zurich and Lisbon . There are also direct flights from Abu Dhabi , Dubai , Doha , New York , Atlanta , Washington, D.C. , Buenos Aires , Mumbai , Hong Kong , Kuala Lumpur , São Paulo , Singapore , Sydney , Tel Aviv and Perth . You may also want to have a look at Discount airlines in Africa .
All the larger airports in South Africa used to be state owned, but have been privatised and are now managed by the Airports Company of South Africa. Durban International Airport is the third biggest airport. Regular Flights from and to: Blantyre , Cairo , Gaborone , Dar es Salaam , Harare , Lilongwe , Livingstone , Luanda , Lusaka , Kinshasa , Maputo , Manzini , Maun , Mauritius , Nairobi , Victoria Falls and Windhoek .
Note: Baggage theft at airports is common especially at O.R. Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg so avoid putting valuables such as jewelry and expensive devices in your main luggage if you can and place them in your hand luggage.
A real adventure is flying with an old classic airliner. There are some tour operators offering such flights, mainly in the Gauteng region. One example is Rovos Air, a division of Rovos Rail.
Some popular services include:
- Cape Town to Gaborone - SA Express on Mondays and Fridays
- Cape Town to Maun - Direct on Monday and Friday
- Cape Town to Mauritius - Thursday and Saturday on Air Mauritius
- Cape Town to Walvis Bay - Sunday to Friday on SA Express
- Cape Town to Windhoek - Daily on SA Airlink and Air Namibia
- Dar es Salaam to Johannesburg - Daily on SAA and Air Tanzania
- Johannesburg to Dar es Salaam - Daily on SAA and Air Tanzania
- Johannesburg to Gaborone - Daily flights on SA Express
- Johannesburg to Kilimanjaro - Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday on Air Tanzania
- Johannesburg to Lusaka - Daily on SAA
- Johannesburg to Maputo - Daily flights on either SAA or Mozambique airlines.
- Johannesburg to Mauritius - Daily on either SAA or Air Mautirius
- Johannesburg to Maun - Daily flights
- Johannesburg to Maseru - Daily flights on SAA Airlink
- Johannesburg to Nairobi - Daily on either SAA or Kenya Airways
- Johannesburg to Seychelles - Tuesday and Saturday on Air Seychelles
- Johannesburg to Swaziland - Daily on SA Airlink
- Johannesburg to Victoria Falls - Daily on SAA and BA
- Johannesburg to Walvis Bay - Sunday to Friday on SA Express
- Johannesburg to Windhoek - Daily on SAA, BA, Comair, and Air Namibia
- Johannesburg to Zanzibar - Tuesday and Sunday on SAA. Daily connecting flight via Dar es Salaam .
- Gaborone to Cape Town - SA Express on Mondays and Fridays
- Gaborone to Johannesburg - Daily flights on SA Express
- Kilimanjaro to Johannesburg - Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, Saturday, Sunday on Air Tanzania
- Lusaka to Johannesburg - Daily on SAA
- Maputo to Johannesburg - Daily flights on either SAA or Mozambique airlines.
- Maseru to Johannesburg - Daily flights on SAA Airlink
- Maun to Cape Town - Direct on Thursday and Sunday
- Maun to Johannesburg - Daily flights
- Mauritius to Johannesburg - Daily on either SAA or Air Mautirius
- Mauritius to Cape Town - Thursday and Saturday on Air Mauritius
- Nairobi to Johannesburg - Daily on either SAA or Kenya Airways
- Seychelles to Johannesburg - Tuesday and Sunday on Air Seychelles
- Swaziland to Johannesburg - Daily on SA Airlink
- Victoria Falls to Johannesburg - Daily on SAA and BA
- Walvis Bay to Johannesburg - Sunday to Friday on SA Express
- Walvis Bay to Cape Town - Sunday to Friday on SA Express
- Windhoek to Johannesburg - Daily on SAA, BA, Comair, and Air Namibia
- Windhoek to Cape Town - Daily on SA Airlink and Air Namibia
- Zanzibar to Johannesburg - Tuesday and Sunday on SAA. Daily connecting flight via Dar es Salaam .
Should you be entering from one of the other countries in Southern Africa you might want to do so by car. South Africa operates a number of land border posts between itself and immediately neighboring countries. The more commonly used ones are:
Open times are often extended during South African holidays.. For a full list of entry ports or any additional information see the South African Border Information Service or contact them on +27 086 026-7337.
Most of the larger cruise lines, such as Princess Cruises offer Cape Town as one of their destinations, but you can also try something different
South Africa has a well established domestic air travel infrastructure with links between all major centres. There are multiple daily flights to all the major airports within the country. Contact any of the airlines for details. The low cost airlines (Kulula, Mango) are usually the cheapest and prices can be compared online. It is also worth comparing with the SAA rates as they usually have online specials which can be cheaper than the "low cost" carriers in some cases.
thumb|You might be unfamiliar with road signs.
All measurements use the metric system; distances on road signs are in kilometers (1.6 km =1 mi) and fuel is sold by the litre (3.8 litres=1 U.S. gallon).
To acquire a car in South Africa, there are basically three options: you can hire a car, buy one or use the so-called buy-back option. Hiring a car is fairly easy and bookings can be made online and in all major cities, although you can get better rates by calling some of the smaller operators. Buying a car takes a bit more work (Roadworthy license, registering the car, insurance), but there is a lively used car market in South Africa. The third option is a combination of both, as you buy a car with a guarantee that the rental company will buy-back your car at the end of the contract.
Most cars in South Africa have manual transmissions and the selection of second-hand automatics may be limited.
Renting a car in South Africa can range anywhere from 200 Rand to upwards of 2500 Rand per day depending on the car group, location and availability. The major rental agencies are Avis, Hertz, Budget Car Hire, Europcar, Tempest Car Hire, Thrifty Car Rental and Dollar Rent A Car. The car rental agencies maintain branches around South Africa including smaller towns and game reserves and national parks.
Most rental fleets in South Africa largely have manual transmissions and vehicles with automatic transmission are limited and tend to be much more expensive. Renting a vehicle with complete loss damage waiver (as is available in the United States) is expensive and hard to find; most agencies will provide only reduced waiver ceilings or waivers for certain types of damage such as to the glass and tires. If you plan to drive on dirt roads in South Africa, check with the rental agency about (1) whether that is authorized for the vehicle you intend to rent and (2) do your own research into whether the vehicle(s) offered are adequate for expected driving conditions.
Rules of the road
Road traffic in South Africa (and its neighboring countries) drives on the left.
Make sure you familiarize yourself with and understand South African road signs. South Africa previously used an unusual system of road signage which combined American typefaces with English and German design elements. This was problematic as American typefaces were not designed to accommodate the long place names typical of Afrikaans. Since 1994, South Africa has been implementing a system of road signs almost identical to Germany's system, with suitable modifications for local conditions (German, like Afrikaans, also has long place names). However, many of the older signs are still in use.
A special kind of intersection is the 'four way stop' where the car that stops first has right of way.
You will not encounter many traffic circles (roundabouts), but when you do, take special care since the general attitude of South African drivers is that traffic circles do not constitute a traffic management roadway structure. They do not use their turn indicators in a safe and predictable fashion, if at all.
A noticeable number of South Africans tend to ignore speed limits. They are prone to selfish or aggressive driving behavior, such as tailgating and hooting. On multi-lane roadways, the principle of keep-left, pass right, is often not adhered to. On two-lane roadways, cars often pass slower vehicles in the centre of the roadway despite oncoming traffic. Cars are expected to merge into the emergency lane as much as possible to permit passing down the centre, even in heavy traffic.
Left (or right) turns on red at traffic lights are illegal. You will, however, find traffic lights and 'four way stops' that have an accompanying yield sign explicitly permitting a left turn.
The wearing of seat belts is compulsory. The front seat occupants of a car are required to wear seat belts while travelling, and for your own safety, it is recommended that those in the rear seats do so as well. If you are caught without that, you will be subjected to a fine.
The use of hand-held cell (mobile) phones whilst in control of a vehicle is illegal. If you need to speak on your cell phone, use either a vehicle phone attachment or a hands-free kit. Or even better (and safer), pull off the road and stop. Only pull off the road at safe places, e.g. a petrol station. Pulling over and stopping along roads can be dangerous. The majority of petrol stations are open 24hrs.
South Africa has a high rate of traffic accidents. You should at all times exercise extra caution when driving, especially at night in urban areas. Watch out for unsafe drivers (minibus taxis), poor lighting, cyclists (many of whom seem not to know about the "drive on the left" rule) and pedestrians (who are the cause of many accidents, especially at night). South Africans pedestrians in general tend to be rather aggressive, like pedestrians from some Southern European countries, and you must be alert for pedestrians who will step into traffic and expect you to stop or swerve for them.
You will also encounter a very large number of people walking along the freeways or running across them simply because that is the fastest route on foot to where they want to go and they cannot afford a car, taxi, or minibus to take them there. Look out for South Africa's notorious taxi and minibus drivers, who will sometimes even stop on freeways to pick up or drop off fares.
When driving outside of the major cities, you will often encounter animals, wild and domestic, in or near the roadway. The locals tend to herd their cattle and goats near the road. If you see an animal on or by the road, slow down, as they are unpredictable. Do not stop to feed wild animals!
Should you find yourself waiting at a red traffic light late at night in an area where you do not feel safe, you could (illegally) cross over the red light after first carefully checking that there is no other traffic. If you receive a fine due to a camera on the traffic light, you can sometimes have it waived by writing a letter to the traffic department or court explaining that you crossed safely and on purpose, due to security reasons. The fact remains that, for whatever reason, you have broken the law. Do not make a habit of this.
When stopped at a traffic light at night, always leave enough room between your car and the car in front of you so you can get around them. It is a common hijacking maneuver to box your car in. This is especially prevalent in the suburbs of Johannesburg.
So far as possible, and especially when driving in urban areas, try not to have any belongings visible inside the car - keep them out of sight in the glove boxes or in the boot (trunk). The same applies, but even more so, when parking your car. It is also considered safe practice to drive in urban areas with the car windows closed and the doors locked. These simple precautions will make things less attractive for potential thieves and criminals.
As you would do in any other country, always be alert when driving. The safest way is to drive defensively and assume that the other driver is about to do something stupid / dangerous / illegal.
Speed limits are usually clearly indicated. Generally, speed limits on highways are 120km/h, those on major roads outside built-up areas are 100 km/h, those on major roads within built-up areas are 80km/h and those on normal city/town roads are 60 km/h. But beware - in some areas, the posted speed limits may change suddenly and unexpectedly.
The roads within South Africa, connecting most major cities, and between its immediate neighbors are very good. There are many national and regional roads connecting the cities and larger centres, including the N1 running from Cape Town through Johannesburg and Pretoria up to Harare, Zimbabwe, the N2 running from Cape Town to Durban, which passes through the world-famous Garden Route near Knysna , and the N3 between Durban and Johannesburg.
Some portions of the national roads are limited access, dual carriage freeways (the N3 between Johannesburg and Durban is freeway almost all the way) and some sections are also toll roads with emergency assist telephones every couple of kilometers. Toll roads generally have two or more lanes in each direction.
The large fuel companies have rest stops every 200-300 km along these highways where you can fill up, eat at a restaurant, buy takeaways, do some shopping or just stretch your legs. Restrooms at these facilities are well maintained and clean. Most (but not all) of these rest stops also have ATMs.
Some of the main roads have only one lane in each direction, especially where they are far from urban centres. When driving on such a road, after passing a truck or other slow-moving vehicle that has moved onto the hard shoulder (often marked by a yellow line) to let you pass, it is customary to flash your hazard lights once. This is considered a thank you and you will most likely receive a my pleasure response in the form of the slow vehicle flashing its headlights once. Bear in mind that it is both illegal and dangerous to drive on the hard shoulder - although many people do.
In many rural areas, you will find unpaved "dirt" roads. Most of these are perfectly suitable for a normal car, although a reduced speed might often be advisable. Extra caution is required when driving on these roads, especially when encountering other traffic - windscreens and lights broken by flying stones are not uncommon.
Whilst it is not yet compulsory, more and more drivers are adopting the practice of driving with their headlights on at all times. This greatly increases their visibility to other road users.
Fuel stations are full service with lead free petrol, lead replacement petrol and diesel available. Pump attendants will offer to wash your windscreen and check oil and water in addition to just filling up the car. It is usual to tip the attendant approximately R5 - if you don't have change filling up R195, for example, and let the attendant keep the change, it is a courteous idea. Most fuel stations are open 24 hours a day.
The N1 between Gauteng and Cape Town and the N3 between Gauteng and KwaZulu Natal can become very busy at the start and end of Gauteng school holidays, due to many people from Gauteng spending their holidays at the coast. If you are planning on using these two highways, it is wise to try and avoid the two days after schools break up and the two days before they open again. School holiday calendars for South Africa can be found here. 1
The N3 normally has a Highway Customer Care line during busy periods, ph: 0800 203 950, it can be used to request assistance for breakdowns, accidents or general route information. Current toll fees, road and traffic condition can also be found on the N3 website 2.
Historically, South African fuel stations were cash only, which was and still is indicated by many guidebooks. However, after a period in which fuel stations accepted only their own proprietary credit cards, in 2009, the government authorized them to begin accepting major credit cards like Visa and MasterCard. As of 2011, some smaller fuel stations accept cash only, but most fuel stations will accept major credit cards. Thus, you do not need to carry large amounts of cash to pay for fuel, unless you are absolutely certain you will need to purchase fuel in a rural area that does not yet support credit cards.
Law enforcement (speed and other violations) is usually done by portable or stationary, radar or laser cameras. Local police forces, especially in rural areas, direct a lot of their efforts in to fining motorists (so to raise revenue rather than to improve road safety). If you see an oncoming car flashing his headlights at you then he or she is probably warning you of an upcoming speed camera he has just passed. Non camera portable radar and laser systems are also used and you may be pulled over for speeding (or other violations) and given a written fine. Fines can be sent to the registered address of the vehicle you are driving, but paying on-the-spot fines is also common, usually the policeman will hold your license whilst you go to the local police station to pay the fine, you get a receipt, and drive back to where you were stopped hand the receipt over to the policeman get your license back - this can take a good hour or more, which can be more of an annoyance than the R400 fine.
In general, the police are pretty honest, but they do respond to politeness and deference to their authority. You may find that when a traffic police officer stops you they will ask for some fairly ludicrous piece of paperwork (a letter from the Ministry... the cars road worthiness certificate...) and that you are in lots of trouble if you don't have it - be firm, cool and friendly and state that you understand that all you need is a drivers license etc. In general, the police want an easy life and can't be bothered to argue for ages if they think you aren't going to offer a 'tip'.
South Africa does not have a merits system and does not share traffic violation information with other nations.
If your driver's licence is in any of South Africa's 11 official languages (e.g. English) and it contains a photo and your signature integrated into the licence document, then it is legally acceptable as a valid driver's licence in South Africa. However, some car rental and insurance companies may still insist that you provide an International Driver's Permit.
It is generally best practice to acquire an International Driver's Permit in your country of origin, prior to starting your journey, regardless of whether your licence is legally acceptable or not.
Police may ask for a bribe (between R200 to R600) if you produce a foreign driver's licence (see also Stay safe section). Don't pay it, ask for their name and ID number and report them.
There are scheduled bus services between Cape Town, Johannesburg, Durban and other cities (with stops in between), as well as connections to neighboring countries. The main bus companies are:
Booking for the above can also be done via Computicket .
An alternative is the Baz Bus . It offers a regular hop-on-hop-off service on some of the most interesting routes for the tourist (Cape Town to Durban via the Garden Route;Durban to Johannesburg via the Drakensberg). Baz Bus picks you up and drops you off at many hostels along the route, so you don't have to hang around at a downtown bus stop at night.
If you're really in a pinch, you can use minibus taxis. They are poorly maintained and rarely comply with safety standards. They also require patience as they make many detours and changeovers at the taxi rank (hub) where the driver will wait for passengers to fill up the bus. But they cover many routes not covered by the main bus service and are quite cheap (25 cents per kilometer per person on the main routes).
Warning: Many buses are removed from service by the police, due to lack of legal road-worthiness. Seek up-to-date advice on which companies are more reputable. Occasionally, the driving can be rather wild, and if you're prone to motion sickness, be prepared.
The Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA) 3 is the national rail operator. There are budget passenger services between major South African cities (known as Shosholoza Meyl) as well as luxury services (known as Premier Classe) between Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban.
Central Reservations (for both Shosholoza Meyl and Premier Classe) can be contacted as follows :
- From within South Africa, phone 086 000 8888 (share-call)
- From outside South Africa, phone +27 11 774 4555
- Email email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
To book tickets, phone Central Reservations on one of the numbers given above and make your booking. You can pick up and pay for the tickets later at any train station.
There are also commuter trains in larger cities (Johannesburg, Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth and East London ) ; these are run by MetroRail . Most services are perfectly safe, but certain routes are overcrowded and not always safe.
Hitchhiking in South Africa is not so hard, but most people will think you are catching a ride with the local taxis and thus expect you to pay. You may want to tell them you are looking for a free ride before climbing aboard. The main issue is crime: some drivers may hijack you and your belongings. Hitchhiking is generally frowned upon and considered unsafe. Drivers are also wary of potentially criminal hitchhikers. Never hitchhike at night. It is unwise to be outside at night, if you are in an area considered unsafe. Remember, most middle-class homes are protected with walls and armed guards; they have this for a reason.
Cycling is probably the best way to experience the country, as you really get to admire the views and get the opportunity to mingle with the locals. While it could be considered unsafe to cycle through the cities, because of crime and reckless drivers, there are many farm/dirt roads throughout South Africa. Locals and Farmers are generally willing to provide you with food and a place to sleep, as long as you are willing to talk.
South Africa has 11 official languages, namely Afrikaans , Southern Ndebele , Xhosa , Zulu , Swazi , Northern Sotho , Southern Sotho , Tswana , Tsonga , Venda and English. Most people other than rural black South Africans speak English as a second language. Only about 8% of the population speak English as a first language, almost exclusively in the white population which is ironically declining as a first language, while it is already a lingua franca among South Africans, and about 60% of the population can understand English. South African English is heavily influenced by Afrikaans. Afrikaans is also widely spoken, especially by the majority of the white and coloured population. Often Afrikaans is incorrectly called 'Afrikan' or 'African' by foreigners. This is very incorrect as 'African' for a South African corresponds with the native-African languages: Zulu , Xhosa , Pedi etc. (and, of course, there are thousands of languages in Africa so no single language can be called 'African') Afrikaans has roots in 17th century Dutch dialects, so it can be understood by Dutch speakers and sometimes deciphered by German speakers. Other widely spoken languages are Zulu (mainly in KwaZulu-Natal - South Africa's largest single linguistic group) and Xhosa (mainly in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape ), as well as Sotho and Venda. This changes, according to the region you are in.
A few words you may encounter are:
- eish - as in, "eish, it's hot today", "eish, that's expensive" or "eish, that's too far to drive"
- lekker - nice, enjoyable
- howzit - how is it? (generally a rhetorical question)
- yebo - yes
- boet, bru, china or ou - brother or man (equivalent to dude or bro)
- koppie - a small hill (can also mean a cup)
- Madiba - Nelson Mandela
- Molo - Hello (in Xhosa)
- robot - traffic light
- tannie - (auntie) respectful term for an older woman
- oom - (uncle) respectful term for an older man
- tinkle - phone call
- just now - sometime soon (from Afrikaans "net-nou")
- now now - sooner than just now! (from Afrikaans "nou-nou", pronounced no-no)
- braai - barbecue.
- cheers - used for saying good-bye, as well as saying thank you and for the occasional toast.
- heita - hello
- sharp - (usually pronounced quickly) OK
- sure-sure more pronounced like sho-sho - Correct, Agreement, Thank you
- ayoba - something cool
- zebra crossing - a crosswalk. named for the white & black stripes that are generally painted on crosswalks.
- bakkie - pick-up truck (from Afrikaans)
In general, English spelling follows British rules rather than US; litre rather than liter, centre rather than center, etc.
Hundreds of thousands of visitors come to South-Africa every year to see the country's many natural and cultural attractions. From wild elephants to stunning landscapes, cave paintings, colonial heritage and bustling townships, South Africa is an enchanting land of contradictions and great beauty.
Wild animals in their natural habitat
South Africa is the most popular safari destination in the world and for many visitors a glance at the "Big Five" and other wildlife is a must. The iconic Kruger National Park in Mpumalanga is surely the most famous place to have that glance, but Addo Elephant National Park in the Eastern Cape is another popular pick. The vast dry plains of the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park with its migratory herds of wildebeast covers parts of both South Africa and Botswana. Along the border with Mozambique another transfrontier park, the iSimangaliso Wetland Park offers very different landscapes and fauna. For scuba divers, South Africa's under water wildlife has a lot to offer, with the annual Sardine run being a highlight. The popular seaside town of Hermanus is probably the best place in the world to go whale watching , with cage diving opportunities with Great White Sharks for the truly adventurous.
Areas of natural beauty and botanical interest
South Africa's landscapes are grand and divers, varying from flat desert scrublands to lush green coastal areas and high peaks. The view from the famous, flat-topped Table mountain is a classic Africa experience. Also in the Cape Town region, the beautiful beaches attract thousands of sun lovers. The green coastal Garden Route is a great natural experience, passing countless lagoons, several interesting towns and the beautiful Tsitsikamma National Park . The Augrabies Falls National Park boasts a 60m high water fall. Close to the Kruger Park is the Blyde River Canyon , the largest green canyon in the world, and not far from there are the high peaks of the Drakensberg mountain range. The Ukhahlamba Drakensberg Park is one of the country's 8 Unesco World Heritage sites for its exceptional natural beauty and the many cave paintings found there.
Large numbers and some of the oldest hominid fossils have been found in South Africa, especially in the Cradle of Humankind , another World Heritage Site. Over 30 different caves held important fossils, but the caves of Sterkfontein are perhaps the most important one at the site. Far more recent, the 17th century Castle of Good Hope in beautiful Cape Town is one of the cultural heritage sites from colonial times. Robben Island , where Nelson Mandela was famously imprisoned, has become a major destination. For more insight in the Apartheid times, visit the District Six Museum in Cape Town or the Apartheid museum in Johannesburg .
- Although regularly criticized, visits to the infamous townships are increasingly popular. Some say such trips turn poverty into entertainment while others think they benefit all those involved. In any case, a township tour is an experience that will stick. Soweto, in Johannesburg , is particularly well known.
- South Africa has gained world wide fame as a wine country, and if you're interested, a visit to one of the over 800 wineries can be a great addition to your trip. Head to the Cape Winelands around Stellenbosch for some of the best picks.
- Dive, see Diving in South Africa for details.
- River Rafting: The Orange River on the border to Namibia is a popular destination for rafting tours. Several tour operators launch 4-6 day trips in blow-up boats from Vioolsdrif with camping under the stars.
- Rugby Union , Cricket and soccer are all popular spectator sports, traditionally associated with Afrikaner, Anglo-South African and Black South African culture respectively, although this has changed in recent years and the Springboks (national Rugby union team) has a lot of black fans at least since the 1995 world cup, hosted in South Africa, that South Africa won with Nelson Mandela (then president) wearing a Springbok jersey.
The currency is the rand, denoted by the symbol "R" (ISO code: ZAR). It is divided into 100 cents (c). Notes are in denominations of R200, R100, R50, R20 and R10. Higher value notes are slightly larger in physical size than small value notes. All notes have a metallic security strip and a watermark. A new series of banknotes was introduced in 2012, and at present both the old and the new series are circulating and legal tender.
Coins are in denominations of R5, R2, R1, 50c, 20c, 10c and 5c. Production of 2c and 1c coins was suspended in 2002 although those still in circulation remain legal tender. All transactions are rounded down to the nearest lower 5c, so as not to require the use of 2c and 1c coins. There are two types of R5 coins in circulation: one is a silver-coloured coin while the other is silver-coloured with a copper insert. Both are legal currency.
South Africa is part of the Southern African Common Monetary Area and the Rand can be used in Namibia (where it is an official currency along with the Namibian dollar), and in Lesotho and Swaziland (where it is widely accepted, but not an official currency). The currencies of each country are tied to the rand at the rate of 1:1.
Traveller's cheques are a safe way of carrying money around. You can exchange them at all banks (which are found throughout the country even in rural areas) and you will get a refund if they are stolen. The disadvantage is that you cannot pay with them and you will need change when exchanging them into Rand. Use ATMs instead if possible.
Automated Teller Machines (ATMs), linked to all major international networks, are available throughout the country and will generally dispense money in a mixture of denominations between R200 and R10, with about 80% of the value requested being high value notes and the rest in smaller denominations. You can use any Cirrus or Maestro card as well as all major credit and debit cards at the ATMs. South African bank ATMs do not charge any fees above those levied by your own financial institution.
It is best to use only ATMs that are inside a mall or other building. Always be careful to make sure no one is watching you enter your PIN, and be vigilant about scams (e.g. machines that seem to eat your card and won't give it back after you enter the PIN). Do not accept help from strangers when withdrawing money at an ATM. If you are approached and offered unwanted help, rather cancel the transaction immediately and go to a different ATM. The till points at some major retail stores (such as Pick 'n Pay) also act as ATMs; simply tell the checkout clerk that you would like to withdraw money.
Visa and MasterCard are accepted almost everywhere. American Express and Diners Club are also accepted, but not as widely.
Most retail stores accept credit cards and pin based debit cards as payment. While South Africa has begun to move towards a chip-and-PIN credit card system like Europe, most stores are still on the traditional credit card system in which the user merely signs the receipt after the transaction is approved. Thus credit card users from countries also still on that system (like the United States) will have no problem using their credit cards in South Africa, provided that they have notified their bank in advance of their travel plans.
VAT (Value Added Tax) is levied at 14% on almost all products in South Africa. By law, advertised prices should be inclusive of VAT except when explicitly stated otherwise. Foreign passport holders may claim back the VAT on products that were bought in South Africa and are being taken out of the country, provided that the total value of the goods exceeds R250. Full details of the procedure to follow are available from the Department of Foreign Affairs and their new TAX Refund for tourists 4 site. VAT Refund Administrator's offices are available at both Johannesburg (O.R. Tambo) and Cape Town International Airports. Refunds will be credited to a Travelex Visa card that you will be given, denominated in U.S. dollars or Euro, the fees in conversion associated with this card can leave you with up to 10% less than you thought you were getting. The cards can only be used outside of South Africa.
Petrol and diesel
Liquid fuel prices in South Africa are regulated and are fixed by region monthly. In general petrol is cheaper near the ports (Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth). In September 2013 a litre of petrol would cost around R13.
The most expensive toll gate in South Africa is the Swartruggens toll plaza on the N4 between Swartruggens and Zeerust , cost is R71 for a normal car. In total, road tolls between Pretoria and Nelspruit or between Johannesburg and Cape Town will cost you just under R100. If travelling from Beitbridge to Cape Town, down the N1, expect to pay as much R270.
- You can buy two McDonald's burgers (a hamburger, cheese burger and chicken burger) for around R22 (Jan 2013)
- A sit down lunch in an average establishment will cost you between R80 and R150 per person. (Jan 2013)
- A decent 30cm pizza will cost you between R55 and R75 (Jan 2013)
Prices in shops are fixed, but prices in open markets or from street vendors are open to barter.
South Africa is not a place to find bargains for most goods. For example, most ordinary consumer goods, electronics, and appliances are all manufactured in China nowadays, while most luxury goods are manufactured in Europe. This means the prices in South Africa will have the cost of transporting them there built-in. A simple GPS navigator for your car will cost about R2000 - more than double the cost in the US or Europe!
However, South Africa is a superior destination for buying African art, curios, and souvenirs which are far more difficult to obtain outside of Africa.
Tipping is the norm in restaurants. Indeed, most of these businesses pay their staff the legal minimum-wage, relying on customer-tips to bring staff incomes up to live-able levels. Tips of around 10% of the bill are considered the norm.
A small amount, usually around R5, is occasionally given to petrol station attendants for additional services, such as cleaning one's windscreen. Toilet cleaners at service stations along major road routes are sometimes tipped when they provide good service and keep the facilities clean. "Car guards", who claim to "look after" one's parked car are often given a small tip if they are in uniform and authorized; however those without uniforms are usually regarded as a nuisance, and tipping them is not compulsory, despite the fact that they often harass motorists looking for payment.
The 10% tipping rule also applies when taking a taxi. As most cabs work with cash only, it's better to ask how much you'll be expected to pay for your journey before getting in. This will ensure that you always have enough to give the driver as a tip.
Lastly, when checking into your hotel, it is customary to tip your porter as well. The generally accepted rule is to give them R5 per bag they handle.
South African cuisine is just as diverse as its cultures, with influences from British , Dutch , German , Indian , Malay , Portuguese and of course the native African influences.
- Braaivleis, meat roasted over an open wood or charcoal fire, is very popular and generally done at weekend social events. The act of roasting the meat as well as the social event is referred to as a braai.
- Pap, a porridge made with corn meal. Slappap (runny porridge), is smooth and often eaten as a breakfast porridge, Stywepap (stiff porridge) has a doughy and more lumpy consistency and is often used as a replacement for rice or other starches. "Krummel" pap also called umphokoqo (crumby porridge) is drier, resembles couscous and is often served at a braai covered in a saucy tomato and onion relish called sous.
- Potjiekos, a meat and vegetable stew made in a cast iron pot over an open fire. A favorite at braais.
- Boerewors, a spicy sausage. Boerewors Rolls are hotdog buns with boerewors rather than hotdogs, traditionally garnished with an onion and tomato relish.
- Biltong and Droëwors, seasoned meat or sausage that has been dried. Beef, game and ostrich meat is often used. A favourite at sports events and while travelling.
- Bunny chows, half a loaf of bread with the inside replaced by lamb or beef curry is a dish not to be missed when travelling to KwaZulu Natal .
- Bobotie, meatloaf with a Cape Malay influence, seasoned with curry and spices, topped with a savoury custard.
- Morogo, a wild spinach on its own or with potato. Sometimes served with pap.
- Waterblommetjiebredie, mutton and indigenous water lily stew.
- Masonja, for the culinary adventurer, fried Mopanie worms.
- Melktert, "milk tart", a milk-based dessert.
- Koeksisters, a deep-fried sticky dessert.
- Vetkoek, deep fried dough ball made from flour, served with apricot jam.
You will find the usual array of international fast food outlets. McDonalds, KFC, Domino's Pizza and Wimpy are well represented throughout the country.
Local franchises worth mentioning are Black Steer, Spur and Steers for the best burgers and Nando's peri-peri chicken.
Pizza delivery is available in most urban areas whereby food can be ordered online with places such as Domino's Pizza and Debonairs.
Most restaurants and even pubs have been declared "smoke-free" areas. In some restaurants you will find a dedicated smokers area where children are not allowed. Rule of thumb is to check for an ashtray on your table. You will, however, in all probability be greeted at the door of the establishment with a "smoking-or-nonsmoking". Check as smoking in non-designated areas are not permitted and you'll be met with some rude gestures.
Municipal tap water is usually safe to drink. In some area such as Hartebeespoort Dam, it is advisable to boil your water before drinking.
Milk is widely available at most supermarkets, but bottled orange juice not-from-concentrate is much, much harder to find than in North America. Most South African retailers carry only orange juice reconstituted from concentrate or orange juice blended with other juices or milk. Soft drinks like Coca-Cola and Pepsi are widely available, though.
The legal age to purchase and drink alcohol in South Africa is 18. Almost all restaurants are licensed to serve liquor.
If offered Witblits or Mampoer; those are locally distilled under the auspices of the Department of Agriculture, and allocated a manufacturers' license. They are safe and enjoyable to consume and does not resemble the names for moonshine or firewater. The alcohol content is controlled by the Department, so is the quality.
Local beer production is dominated by SABMiller with Castle, Hansa, Black Label and Castle Milk Stout being most popular brands. There are also Micro Breweries all over South Africa. Imported beers such as Stella Artois and Grolsch are also widely available. The Namibian Windhoek brand beers are also popular and generally available.
Prices can vary widely depending on the establishment. Expect to pay anything from R7 to R18 for a beer.
South Africa has a well established wine industry with most of the wine produced concentrated in the Cape Winelands in the Western Cape and along the Orange River in the Northern Cape . Wine is plentiful throughout the country and very inexpensive.
Amarula Cream is made from the marula fruit. The marula fruit is a favorite treat for African elephants, baboons and monkeys and in the liqueur form definitely not something to be passed over by humans. Pour over crushed ice and enjoy. The taste, colour and texture is very similar to the world famous Baileys Irish Cream. Cape Velvet is a favorite in and around Cape Town.
Tea and coffee
The local Rooibos tea, made from a herb from the Cederberg Mountains is a favorite for many South Africans. You will find coffee shops in most shopping malls, such as Mugg&Bean and House of Coffees. Coffee shops similar in concept to Starbucks, like Seattle Coffee Company and Vida e Caffe (Portuguese themed), are becoming commonplace.
Establishments in South Africa can have themselves graded by the ''Tourism Grading Council of South Africa '' on a 5 star basis. Many establishments make use of this service and you will see the star grading displayed on most advertising material.
- 1 star - Clean, comfortable and functional.
- 2 star - Good: Quality furnishings, service and guest care.
- 3 star - Very good: Better furnishings, service and guest care.
- 4 star - Superior: Excellent comfort and very high standard furnishings, service and guest care.
- 5 star - Exceptional: Top of the line quality and luxurious accommodation to match the best international standards. Flawless service and guest care.
Backpacking lodges or hostels are widespread all over the country. Most establishments offer great value tours and activities in the areas. There is a great network of transport around the country making it suitable for single and younger travellers. Some lodges provide meals especially in the more remote areas. Most have self-catering facilities and shared bathrooms although en-suite bathrooms are also common.
Bed and Breakfast establishments are becoming very popular. The accommodation is usually provided in a family (private) home and the owner/manager lives in the house or on the property. Breakfast is usually served. Bathroom facilities may be en-suite. In general, the guest shares the public areas with the host family.
A house, cottage, chalet, bungalow, flat, studio, apartment, villa, houseboat, tents or similar accommodation where facilities and equipment are provided for guests to cater for themselves. (This can include a fridge, oven, stove, microwave etc...) The facilities should be adequate to cater for the maximum advertised number of residents the facility can accommodate.
A guest house is either a converted house, manor, etc. adapted to accommodate overnight guests or it may be a purpose built facility. A guest house is run as a commercial operation and is often owner-managed. A guest house has areas which are for the exclusive use of the guest. The owner/manager either lives off-site, or in a separate area within the property.
Camping and caravaning
Caravan parks can be found in most towns that are holiday destinations. Most caravan parks also offer camping sites where you can pitch a tent (double check because sometime tents are excluded).
The parks generally have central ablution facilities.
Also see the By motorhome and By offroad vehicle sections for additional camping options.
There are many timeshare resorts in South Africa, most participate in international exchange agreements. Many timeshare owners also rent their time when they can not make use of it.
Many real estate agents in South Africa also offer rental services. The rental properties are mostly available on unfurnished long term lease, but you will also find furnished properties on offer with 1 to 12 month lease agreements
Your local branch of an international estate agent with a presence in South Africa might also be able to assist you.
Non-South African citizens need to be in possession of a study permit to study inside the country. You should apply for one at a South African High Commission, Embassy, Consulate or Trade Mission in your country of origin, or in the nearest country, should there be no South African representation is available in your country. Government form BI-1738 needs to be completed for the application.
You will need to do some preparation to gain a study permit. At a minimum you will need acceptance by a South African University, repatriation guarantees, return air ticket and proof that you can cover living expenses while in South Africa before a permit will be issued. The cost for obtaining a study permit is R425 and applications take about 6 weeks to process.
Expect to spend about R5,000 per month on general living expenses (accommodation, food, travel, etc) in addition to tuition fees.
There are many secondary and tertiary education centres in South Africa. The University of Cape Town is the top-ranked university in Africa, placing 198th in the world, according to the 2007 Times Higher Education ranking. The Universities of the Witwatersrand, Stellenbosch, Pretoria and KwaZulu-Natal also routinely appear in the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Top 500 rankings.
South Africa is also an excellent venue to learn new skills such as flying, sailing and scuba diving since costs are generally far lower than in more developed countries while quality of training will be equal or better.
Commercial diving: South Africa is quite popular for commercial diver training as the qualification is internationally recognised by the International Diver Recognition Forum, and the Department of Labout is a member of the International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA). A South African Department of Labour certification as a Class I or Class II diver is acceptable for offshore work in many other parts of the world, including the North Sea and Nigerian offshore oilfields.
Due to the large number of unemployed South Africans, there are limited work opportunities for foreigners in South Africa.
Non South African citizens are only allowed to work in South Africa if they are in possession of a work permit. Students in Canada can apply for a work visa through SWAP, although costs are high the service is helpful and well organized.
The process of applying for a work permit is similar to applying for a study permit, contact a South African High Commission, Embassy, Consulate or Trade Mission in your country of origin, or in the nearest country, should there be no South African representation is available in your country. Government form B1-159 (A&C) needs to be completed for the application. Processing of the application will take 8 to 12 weeks.
Scarce skills and work permit quotas
There are some skills that are in short supply in the country and the Department of Home Affairs has a Quota Work Permit program aimed at sourcing these skills from abroad. A list of skills in demand and set quotas for each of those skills are published yearly. Applicants with formal qualification and work experience in the required fields may apply for a quota work permit. This permit costs around R1600 and applications will take between 6 and 8 weeks to process. If the application is approved one will have a 90 day period (from the time of entering the country) to find employment in the field that the permit was issued for. Once employed, the permit will stay valid as long as one is employed within the same field of work (changing employers is allowed). More information, as well as the skills and quotas list for the current year, can be found on the Department of Home Affairs homepage 5
South Africa has very few earthquakes, cyclones, tornadoes, floods, terrorist incidents or contagious diseases (with the notable exception of HIV).
However, South Africa has some of the highest violent crime rates in the world, though by being vigilant and using common sense, you should have a safe and pleasant trip as hundreds of thousands of other people have each year. The key is to know and stick to general safety precautions: never walk around in deserted areas at night or advertise possession of money or expensive accessories.
Do not accept offers from friendly strangers. Do not wear a tummy bag with all your valuables; consider a concealed money belt worn under your shirt instead. Leave passports and other valuables in a safe or other secure location, although most banks and exchange bureaus require your passport in order to exchange foreign monies to Rands. Do not carry large sums of money. Do not walk by night in deserted places. Hide that you are a tourist: conceal your camera and binoculars. Do not leave your valuables in plain sight when driving in your car, as "smash and grab" attacks sometimes occur at intersections, and keep your car doors locked and your windows open no more than half way. Know where to go so that you avoid getting lost or needing a map: that will avoid signs.
If you are carrying bags, try to hook them under a table or chair leg when sitting down, as this will prevent them from being snatched.
Visiting the townships is possible, but do not do it alone unless you really know where you're going. Some townships are safe while others can be extremely dangerous. Go with an experienced guide. Some tour companies offer perfectly safe guided visits to the townships.
Taking an evening stroll or walking to venues after dark can be very risky. It simply is not part of the culture there, as it is in Europe, North America or Australia. It is best to take a taxi (a metered cab, not a minibus taxi) or private vehicle for an "evening out". The same applies to picking up hitchhikers or offering assistance at broken-down car scenes. It is best to ignore anyone who appears to be in distress at the side of the road as it could be part of a scam. Keep going until you see a police station and tell them about what you have seen.
Beware that if you are driving in South Africa, when police officers stop you to check your licence, and you show them an overseas driver's licence, they may come out with some variant of `Have you got written permission from [random government department] to drive in our country?' If your license is written in English or you have an International Driving Permit then they can't do anything. Stand your ground and state this fact - be polite, courteous and don't pay any money (bribes).
Take extra care when driving at night. Unlike in Europe and North America, vast stretches of South African roads, especially in rural areas, are poorly lit or often completely unlit. This includes highways. Be extra careful as wildlife and people often walk in the middle of the road in smaller towns (not cities like Pretoria, Johannesburg, or Cape Town). You must also take extra care when driving in South Africa due to the risk of carjackings.
O.R. Tambo International Airport Security Warning
Operators at the airport occasionally steal valuable objects such as iPods, laptops, digital cameras, cellular phones and jewelry while scanning the checked-in luggage of passengers. They may take advantage of the scanner machine to detect valuable objects and steal them. These events do occur and the stolen items include anything from electronic devices to designer perfumes.
Place any items of value in carry-on luggage, remembering that more than 100 mL of lotion and other liquids are not allowed to be taken in carry-on luggage. When checking in at O.R. Tambo the check-in attendant will remind you not to place valuable items in your luggage. A service to wrap luggage in cling-wrap film is available at the airport, and others cable-tie the zip fasteners together to deter easy access to the contents of luggage.
Important telephone numbers
From a fixed line
- 107 - Emergency (in Cape Town, only from fixed lines)
- 10111 - Police
- 10177 - Ambulance
From a mobile phone
- 112-All Emergencies
International calls at local rates
- Step 1: Dial: 087 150 0823 from any mobile or landline
- Step 2: Dial destination number and press #
- e.g. 00 44 11 123 4567 #
- Countries: USA, UK(Landline), India, Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong and many more.
- Supported On: Vodacom, MTN, Cell C, Telkom and Neotel
One of the main reasons travellers visit South Africa is to experience the outdoors and see the wide range of wildlife.
When driving in a wildlife reserve, always keep to the speed limits and stay inside your car at all times. On game drives or walks, always follow the instructions of your guide.
Ensure that you wear socks and boots whenever you are walking in the bush; do not wear open sandals. A good pair of boots can stop snake and insect bites and avoid any possible cuts that may lead to infections.
In many areas you may encounter wildlife while driving on public roads, monkeys and baboons are especially common. Do not get out of the vehicle to take photos or otherwise try to interact with the animals. These are wild animals and their actions can be unpredictable.
Sometimes you might find yourself in the open with wild animals (often happens with baboons at Cape Point). Keep your distance and always ensure that the animals are only to one side of you, do not walk between two groups or individuals. A female baboon may get rather upset if you separate her from her child.
Always check with locals before swimming in a river or lake as there may be crocodiles or hippos. Most major beaches in KwaZulu-Natal have shark nets installed. If you intend to swim anywhere other that the main beaches, check with a local first.
Shark nets may be removed for a couple of days during the annual sardine run (normally along the KwaZulu-Natal coast between early May and late July). This is done to avoid excessive shark and other marine life fatalities. Notices are posted on beaches during these times.
Emergency and medical assistance
There are a number of independent emergency assist companies in South Africa
It is best to avoid public hospitals where possible. Private hospitals are of world class standard.
The major pharmacy chains found at shopping centres catering to tourists (e.g., Sandton City, V&A Waterfront) is Clicks and Dischem. Some supermarket chains like Checkers have in-store pharmacies.
South African pharmacies are generally comparable to their counterparts in Europe and North America. However, the retail shelves of South African pharmacies tend to have a smaller selection of drugs than their North American counterparts, and a more dietary supplements. South African pharmacies do carry many OTC drugs, but if you don't see them on the shelf, you'll have to ask for them at the counter when the pharmacist is in.
Municipal tap water is usually safe to drink throughout the country. In the Western Cape mountain water is safe, even if it has been stained brown due to vegetation. A strong risk of bilharzia exists for still-standing water.
Many activities in South Africa are outdoors, see the sunburn and sun protection travel topic for tips on how to protect yourself.
HIV and AIDS
South Africa has one of the highest HIV infection rates world-wide. 5.4 million people out of a population of 48 million are HIV-positive.
The HIV infection rate in the total population older than 2 years varies from around 2% in the Western Cape to over 17% in KwaZulu-Natal (Avert and all together 18.8% of South Africans over 15 years of age are HIV-Positive. One in four females and one in five males aged 20 to 40 is estimated to be infected.
The north-eastern areas of the country (including the Kruger National Park and St. Lucia and surrounds) are seasonal malaria zones, from about November to May. The peak danger time is just after the wet season from March to May. Consult a physician regarding appropriate precautions, depending on the time of year you will be travelling. The most important defences against malaria are:
- using a DEET-based mosquito repellent
- covering your skin with long-sleeved clothing, especially around dusk; and
- using mosquito nets while sleeping.
Tabbard and Peaceful Sleep are commonly used mosquito repellents and can be bought almost anywhere.
Also read the Malaria and Mosquitoes travel topics.
Smoking is banned in all enclosed public spaces, these include airports, pubs, shopping malls and theaters. However this is largely ignored, if people are smoking indoors then feel free to join them.
Most restaurants do have smoking sections, either ventilated indoor areas or outdoor open areas.
South Africans are generally polite, friendly and accommodating to tourists.
Public behaviour is very similar to what you might find in Europe. Heterosexual displays of affection in public are not frowned upon unless you overdo it. Homosexual displays of affection may generate unwelcome attention although they will be tolerated and respected in the more gay-friendly and cosmopolitan areas of Johannesburg (Sandton, Rosebank and Parkhurst), Cape Town (Greenpoint, Clifton and De Waterkant) and Durban. South Africa is the first and only African nation where the government recognizes same-sex relationships and homosexual marriages are recognized by law.
Men generally greet with a firm handshake, while women will do the continental kiss on the cheek.
Except for designated beaches, nude sunbathing is illegal, although topless sunbathing for women is acceptable along Durban and Umhlanga beaches, and Cape Town's Clifton and Camps Bay beaches. Thong bikinis for ladies and swimming trunks for men (speedos if you really must) are acceptable. Eating places are casual except when otherwise indicated.
Eating is generally done the British way with the fork in their left hand and the tines pointed downward. Burgers, pizzas, bunny chows and any other fast foods are eaten by hand. It is generally also acceptable to steal a piece of boerewors from the braai with your hands. Depending on which cultural group you find yourself with, these rules might change. Indians often eat breyani dishes with their hands, a white person of British descent might insist on eating his pizza with a knife and fork or a black person might eat pap-and-stew with a spoon. Be flexible, but don't be afraid to also do your own thing; if really unacceptable, people will generally tell you so rather than take offence.
South Africans are proud of their country and what they have achieved. Although they themselves are quick to point out and complain to each other about the problems and shortcomings that still exist, they will harshly defend against any outsider doing so.
One thing you need to understand is that South African people are very straightforward. If you do or say something that offends a South African, they will tell you so, in a very straightforward manner. So, you must not be offended if this happens, but just apologise and change the manner in which you do things so that you don't offend any other people.
Those who are more accustomed to North American racial terminology should understand that words that are familiar to them have different meanings in South Africa, and the rules for what terms are polite or not are different. There are many South Africans that think classification according to skin colour or appearance in general, whether for political or social reasons, is inappropriate and would prefer to be referred to as simply South African irrespective of what you think they look like.
- If you wish to refer to South Africans of solely African ancestry, "black" (the term used under apartheid) is still considered appropriate by some. It might help to practice thinking of identifying particular language groups-Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, etc. Most urban blacks are also able to speak English in addition to their native language, though English proficiency can be limited in rural areas.
- The term "coloured" refers to a mixed race cultural group with white and African ancestors from the early colonial period - and who typically speak Afrikaans and dwell chiefly in the Western Cape, although some of these people oppose the term, and simply call themselves black. In general the term does not have as much of a negative connotation as it would in the US or Britain. 'Coloured' can be used incorrectly to describe people who would consider themselves as either black or white and thus should be used with caution. Not every person with ostensibly "mixed" heritage will necessarily consider themselves "coloured" in the cultural sense and may not identify as such; a well-known example is comedian Trevor Noah who is the son of a white Swiss man and a black Xhosa woman born during Apartheid. During Apartheid, the "coloured" group also included the ethnic Chinese community.
- White South Africans can quite simply be called "white" or "white South African". The mother-tongue of white South Africans is either Afrikaans (derived from Dutch) or English, so there are Afrikaners and English speaking South Africans. Almost all white South Africans can speak English, even if their mother-tongue is Afrikaans since commerce and entertainment is predominantly English, while English-speaking South Africans often speak Afrikaans or one of the African languages as a second language. This is particularly true of the younger generation. Typical white South Africans consider themselves as "African" as those born in the United States consider themselves "American"; most have family who have lived in South Africa for centuries, and the only continent they can call home is Africa. Avoid calling Afrikaners "Dutchmen" or "Boers", both considered pejorative and offensive, or Afrikaans "Kitchen Dutch" as they are fiercely independent and proud of their language, and do not consider themselves Dutch. Although primarily used to refer to people of European descent, during Apartheid the term "white" included Japanese people as well.
- The fourth racial category left over from the apartheid system is "Indian" (from India ), referring to people whose ancestors came from India during the British colonial period. The largest Indian populations are in KwaZulu-Natal, in particular around Durban.
- There is also a small community of Cape Malays, based mainly in the Bo Kaap area of Cape Town, who are descendants of the slaves who were brought over from what is today Malaysia and Indonesia during the colonial period. Though the majority of them are still Muslim, they no longer speak the Malay language and primarily speak either Afrikaans or English.
- Black - the majority of South Africans - of Bantu origin. The three most populous groups are Xhosa (Eastern & Western Cape), Zulu (KwaZulu-Natal) and Sotho (Free State).
- White - can be subdivided into Afrikaans speakers (the majority), and English speakers.
- Coloured - of mixed heritage - Afrikaans speaking, and concentrated in the Western Cape.
- Indian - concentrated around Durban.
- Malay - Muslims in the Bo Kaap area of Cape Town
It is wise to avoid racial or political remarks while in South Africa if you don't have a good understanding of South African history because the country's very diverse cultural disposition means that "putting your foot in it" is easy. However, you will encounter many South Africans who lived through the apartheid period, and who are willing to talk about their experiences of the time. It can be very interesting to speak with them about their experiences, and if you have an open mind and willingness to listen, you can avoid offence.
South Africa is now in its third decade since the end of apartheid (a very sensitive issue for everyone) in 1990, but it is always easier to change laws than people. You will occasionally still hear overtly racist remarks, from any race group in South Africa, not only from white South Africans. This is more common from the older generation than the younger ones. The best thing to do is simply ignore it; leave the responsibility for enlightening lectures to other South Africans, who know the subject better than any foreign traveller as they have lived it. South Africans of different races generally treat each other politely at a personal level. Political movements are another matter, and political parties have been aligned along the racial fault lines of the society although there is starting to be a move toward better integration. The majority of black South Africans vote for the African National Congress, and the majority of white and coloured South Africans vote for the liberal centrist Democratic Alliance. Politics in South Africa is a touchy issue, and it's best to talk about it with care.
Interracial marriages are becoming quite common, and, except for possibly some of the older generation, people no longer take offense if you and your partner are not the same colour.
South Africa's country code is 27.
Phone numbers within South Africa are of the format 0XX YYY ZZZZ.
Large cities have area codes 0XX (Johannesburg is 011, Pretoria 012, Cape Town 021, Durban 031, Port Elizabeth 041, East London 043, Kimberley 053, Bloemfontein 051) while smaller towns may have longer area codes (0XX Y for example) with shorter local numbers.
When dialing a South African number from outside the country, one should dial +27 XX YYY ZZZZ.
Dialing within the country one should use all 10 digits, 0XX YYY ZZZZ.
To dial out of South Africa, dial 00 followed by the country code and the rest of the number you are trying to reach.
Pay phones are available at airports, shopping malls and some petrol stations. The number of pay phones in open public areas have been reduced over recent years, but you should still be able to find one when you need one. Pay phones use either coins or prepaid cards that are available at most shops and petrol stations ; coin phones are generally blue while card phones are usually green.
South Africa has an extensive GSM network, working on the same frequency as the rest of Africa and Europe . There are five cell phone providers in South Africa: Vodacom, MTN, Cell-C, Virgin Mobile and 8ta.
The networks support GPRS countrywide and LTE, 3G, EDGE and HSDPA support is available in larger urban areas.
Do not assume you will not have network coverage just because you can not see a GSM tower. Many of the towers have been built to look like trees (Vodacom) or other structure (MTN) in order to better blend into the surroundings and not be an eyesore. In some rural areas, GSM towers still look like towers because of problems with animals damaging them when they look like trees.
SIM card prepaid starter kits are available for around R1. You will need a passport and a proof of residential address and it has to be registered before you can call or receive calls. If you call into a Vodacom or MTN store with a passport and drivers licence, you can be all connected on the spot. You can buy credit for prepaid phones just about everywhere, remembering you will usually need cash to do so from service stations.
There are plenty of Internet cafes and access rates are cheap.
Even cheaper and more mobile would be to buy a prepaid cell phone starter pack (less than R10) and access the Internet with GPRS or 3G. Generally R2 per MB for out of bundle data from most providers (50c for Virgin Mobile), but it becomes a lot cheaper if you buy a data bundle. Vodacom prices range from 38c per MB on a 500MB bundle to 19c per MB on a 1GB bundle. MTN prices range between R1 per MB on a 10MB to 39c per MB on a 1GB bundle. Mobile data connections are always charged per MB as opposed to per second (as is popular on many European networks).
Neotel offers CDMA coverage in the larger metro areas with prepaid packages starting at R800 for 24GB (usb device included and data valid for 12 months) or R400 for the device and R0.20 per MB with the purchase of recharge vouchers. Coverage is still limited, so make sure to check the coverage map first.
ADSL1 is popular for residential use and are available in speeds of 384kbit/s, 1Mbit/s and 10Mbit/s. Due to the Telkom monopoly on last-mile infrastructure, operators can get away with labeling 384kbit/s as "broadband internet" simply because there are almost no viable alternatives, and users are usually limited to 1GB to 3GB per month on an account. The average cost of ADSL data is R70/GB.
AlwaysOn seem to be leading the way in prepaid Wi-Fi access. Their hotspots can now be found at Cape Town, Durban and O.R. Tambo airports, City Lodge Hotels, Sun International Hotels, some Southern Sun Hotels, Mugg & Bean restaurants and various other places.
Simply connect to the access point and you will be given the opportunity to pay for access by credit card. Pricing starts at around R15 for 10 minutes or R60 for 100MB. Their support desk can be contacted on +27 011 759-7300.
As is the reality with many developing countries, beggars are rife in South Africa. There are also many children and mothers with babies begging on the streets. People are discouraged by social services from giving children and mother-with-baby beggars money, as there are a number of children's homes available and giving them money keeps them on the street and often feeds a drug or drinking habit. However, if you encounter a particularly friendly beggar, there's nothing stopping you from giving them a few rands or a burger or bag of apples. Just be aware that muggers and con-artists are also rife in South Africa, so be wary at all times.
Embassies and consulates
If your country is not listed here, have at look at the list provided by the Department of Foreign Affairs .
A number of international banks operate branches in South Africa.
There are some laws that the average tourist might not be aware of
- If you intend to do any angling (fishing), either freshwater or at the coast, you will require an angling licence for the province you are in. These can be obtained at any Post Office and the price depends on the province, but is generally under R50. Fishery and environments officials do from time to time check if anglers are in possession of a licence and you can expect to be fined if you are caught fishing without a licence. Also pick up a booklet from the nearest angling shop that will tell you what the size limits for each species of fish is.
- Except for specific areas, clearly indicated by notice boards, it is illegal to drive a vehicle onto any beach.
- Boat skippers need a license to pilot a craft on ALL water courses, fresh or saltwater, within South Africa.
You can have film developed at most pharmacies and shopping malls, even in small towns. Automated machines to print (or copy to CD) from digital media (CF, SD, MMC, Memory stick etc.) are also becoming quite common and easy to find. Larger shopping malls have dedicated photography shops where you can buy cameras and lenses or have a camera repaired. Most major camera manufacturers are well represented.
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